José Maria Eça de Queiroz

José Maria de Eça de Queiroz or Eça de Queirós (according with the new Portuguese Orthography) (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈɛsɐ dɨ kejˈɾɔʃ] or [kɐiˈɾɔʃ]; November 25, 1845 – August 16, 1900) is generally considered to be the greatest Portuguese writer in the realist style. Zola considered him to be far greater than Flaubert. The London Observer critics rank him with Dickens, Balzac and Tolstoy. Eça never officially rejected Catholicism, and in many of his private letters he even invokes Jesus and uses expressions typical of Catholics, but was very critical of the Catholic Church of his time, and of Christianity in general (also Protestant churches) as is evident in some of his novels. He used the old-fashioned spelling "Eça de Queiroz" and this is the form that appears on many editions of his works; the modern standard Portuguese spelling is "Eça de Queirós". Eça de Queirós was born in Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal, in 1845. An illegitimate child, he was officially recorded as the son of José Maria de Almeida Teixeira de Queirós, a Brazilian judge and an unknown mother.

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