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Franz Pfeffer von Salomon

Franz Pfeffer von Salomon (February 19, 1888 in Düsseldorf - April 12, 1968 in Munich) was the first commander of the SA after its 1925 restoration, which followed its temporary abolition in 1923 after the abortive Beer Hall Putsch. Salomon was a Freikorps member and veteran from World War I. He made a name for himself by organizing resistance groups to stop the French occupation of the Ruhr. He was Gauleiter to Upper Bavaria; Heinrich Himmler was once his secretary. Adolf Hitler made Salomon commander of the SA after he swore unconditional loyalty to Hitler following the Bamberg Conference in 1926. Salomon was fired in 1930 over disagreements with Hitler as to the role of the SA, and because he failed to stop fellow SA leader Walter Stennes from briefly occupying the Nazi Party's office in Berlin. After Salomon's dismissal, Hitler assumed personal Supreme Command of the SA. Thereafter, Ernst Röhm was summoned by Hitler to return to Germany from South America and to run the SA as its Chief of Staff, since Hitler had no interest in running the SA itself.

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